Category Archives: 2018 / No. 1 & 2 / LXVI

RP 2018-2 (EN)

2018. 2. Cover

THEORETICAL STUDIES

THE MATHEMATICS CURRICULUM FOR LOW SECONDARY EDUCATION: BALANCING BETWEEN MODERN AND TRADITIONAL PERSPECTIVES | Luminiţa CATANĂ

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Abstract: After new math curriculum for the middle school (5th – 8th grades) came into force, in 2017, it was found that significant differences between the formal curriculum, thought by school curriculum designers, and the curriculum interpreted by teachers and applied in class, may appear, even when teachers have participated in curricular training courses. These differences can be determined by factors such as teaching habits, class level, manual used, or even the national exams at the end of the 8th grade. Starting from the general idea that it is necessary for teachers to decode correctly and to accept the new vision of constructing mathematical knowledge using the curriculum, this paper details the new aspects of the middle school mathematics. Their presentation is reported for each section of the program, insisting on the differences from the previous version. The article could be useful to providers of didactic training programs for middle school mathematics teachers, as well as to teachers who wish to design and develop various didactic resources for mathematics, in accordance to the new curriculum.

Keywords: Didactics of mathematics, math curriculum for middle school

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INTERNALIZING A REFLEXIVE IDENTITY – A CHALLENGE FOR SCHOOL MANAGEMENT | Carmen-Violeta IOSIFESCU

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Abstract: For thirty years, learning is an intense concept studied by organizations, the specialists thinking that “the time of strategic planning is rapidly changing into the era of organizational learning” (Schon, 1994), as man is considered not only a resource for the school organization, but a valuable source in heart of the strategic development process of the organization. Relatively recent research (Senge, 1991; Schon, 1994) shows that innovation is becoming easier and more sustainable in “learning organizations”. Our article aims to feed the theoretical reflection on the school as a “learning organization”, on its ambivalence and paradoxes, and to make further clarification about its management directions. We base our analysis on the principles of postmodernism in education, on an interpretative posture, humanistic essence, building a transversal and multi-level “reading grid” of the school organization focused on such a learning approach. The concept has much to offer to the reforming and restructuring thinking about the organization. Although the theoretical analysis exerts a great attraction, the learning organization remains a philosophy rather than a program. This raises many questions. Let’s not forget that the school is (still) quite strong perceived as the place “of teaching”, of transmitting knowledge. But the learner, the learning organization, are built on something else.

Keywords: empowerment, learning organization, postmodernism, reflexive practice.

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DESIGNING EDUCATION SITUATIONS THAT USE DIGITAL RESOURCES AND ONLINE APPLICATIONS | Olimpius ISTRATE

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Abstract: Even if we have educational software, digital resources, online applications, or a virtual learning platform, learning activities planning is not easier or less accurate. Learning and assessment need to be designed even more closely and better tied to learning objectives, to avoid distractors, to fit on the time available, to maximize the potential of digital support to increase the participation of all students, to complement classroom learning with learning activities at home (flipped classroom). In the context of the “conventional” instructional design, centreed on the calibration of the finalities and methods based on content, theme, audience and available resources, the article presents several models of organising learning originally built to support the design of digital educational games (Quinn, 2005), which can be used to understand how we can transform a didactic activity into an attractive education situation, similar to ludic activities, especially when we can integrate new technologies. We present a selection of three models – mini-scenarios, chained scenarios, conditional scenarios – progressively ordered according to their ability to increase engagement and attractiveness of learning activities.

Keywords: Digital educational resources, instructional design, online applications.

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MODERN EDUCATIONAL REFORMS IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION IN TURKEY | Makhira H. MALYSHEVA

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Abstract: The article covers modern educational reforms in Turkish vocational education and their impact on the quality of vocational education as well as vocational education development. The key factors, which predetermine educational reforms, were considered and their results were analysed. The advantages and disadvantages of such changes were justified. It was concluded Turkish experience in this field could be rather useful for foreign countries, which are on the way of enhancing the quality of their national vocational education.

Keywords: educational reforms, Turkey, vocational education.

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PREVENTION OF AGGRESIVE BEHAVIOUR IN PUPILS BY DEVELOPING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ABILITIES | Luminiţa MITROFAN

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Abstract: We live in a society where aggressiveness and violence already tend to become a major social problem. Aggressiveness is present in all environments, conditioned by many cultural, environmental and social factors that sometimes influence how it will be expressed and often involve high social costs. In recent years, there has been a sharp rise in aggression and violence in the school environment, which raises concern and the necessity to find effective solutions to combat them. In fact, the problem of school violence was debated at the Utrecht European Commission Conference in 1997, ensuring a safe school environment becoming a major objective for most of the participating countries. The purpose of this article is to highlight the relationship between aggressiveness and emotional intelligence in students, as well as the very important role that emotional skills development programmes have in preventing and combating this phenomenon. Aggressiveness and violence in the school environment requires a frontal approach through the use of effective classroom educational strategies that actively involve students and teachers. Such strategies could be represented by the implementation of socio-emotional development programmes to help students develop emotional skills such as: effective identification and management of negative emotions and stress, empathy, compassion and altruism, cooperation with colleagues and work in team, assertive communication and, last but not least, conflict management skills. When pupils are armed with such skills, they increase school performance, empathy and the quality of social interactions, while reducing the frequency of school discipline issues as well as aggressive manifestations.

Keywords: Aggressiveness, emotion, emotional intelligence, school environment, socio-emotional development, violence.

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THE “MIRACLE” OF EDUCATION POLICIES IN FINLAND BETWEEN EQUITY AND MUTUAL TRUST. FROM PERFORMANCE TO EXCELENCE | Mihaela-Viorica RUŞITORU

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Abstract: Miracle” (Niemi et al., 2012), “mystery”, “excellence”, “performance”, “worldleading”, etc. are some keywords used to describe the educational system in Finland. The article analyses the main cornerstones of Finnish educational policy. Several aspects are identified and decrypted, for instance: historical and cultural framework; equality and equity for lifelong learning; culture of trust at all levels; educational performance and research-based education and quality of teacher training. The present study wants to help readers to better understand the Finnish education system and to appreciate its good pedagogical practices which could be adapted to improve the education policies.

Keywords: Culture of equity and trust, education policy,  Finland.

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EMPIRICAL STUDIES

AN ANALYSIS OF EDUCATIONAL POLICY MEASURES FOR RURAL EDUCATION | Elena UNGUREANU

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Abstract: This study explores the typology of rural education policy measures proposed in the Education Strategies developed between 2002 and 2017. We analyzed twelve strategies, according to an analysis framework that includes the objectives and the instruments proposed for use in relation to problems identified in rural areas. Subsequently, the identified objectives were organized thematically so as to highlight a map of intervention areas in the rural area. Instruments were classified using the Vedung (1998) typology: regulatory, economic and information tools. The intervention areas identified under the objectives were: school responsibility and partnership/lifelong learning, improved school infrastructure, quality of educational provision and equal opportunities for access and participation. Each field corresponds to certain types of instruments, the use of which varies according to the directions of action as well as the period. For example, in the area of school responsibility and partnership or infrastructure, regulatory or economic instruments are used in particular. The patterns identified in the policy tool proposals as well as highlighting rural intervention areas in the education strategies analyzed are a new way to conceptualize the evolution of rural public education policies. An in-depth understanding of strategic planning and proposals for the use of certain policy instruments in rural areas could contribute to the development and delivery more appropriate policies, for the targeted population.

Keywords: educational policy, policy paradigm, policy instruments, rural education, social learning

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REFERENCE POINTS FOR THE STRUCTURAL REFORM OF THE ACADEMIC TEACHING STAFF DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA WITHIN CO-FUNDED PROJECTS UNDER POSDRU 2007 – 2013 AND POCU 2014 – 2020 | Dorina Dumitra ZLOTA

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Abstract: The purpose of the analysis was determined by the need to identify the stage of structural reform in the field of initial and continuing psycho-pedagogical education of teachers in higher education, including the trainers of trainers, meaning those teachers who have attributions in the formation of future academic staff or staff didactic education in pre-university education through co-financed projects from the Operational Program – Human Resources Development (POSDRU) 2007 – 2013. Such a structural reform is intended to be continued through the Operational Program Human Capital (POCU) and becomes increasingly necessary in the context in which a prerequisite for the efficiency of the Romanian education and training system is represented by the quality of investment in the human resource involved in the education of current and future generations of students for all education levels.

Keywords: Continuous training, teachers’ initial training, POCU interventions, POSDRU projects.

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THE CONSTRUCTIVIST MODEL OF COUNSELLING AND THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON CAREER | Roxana AXINTE

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Abstract: Această lucrare oferă o scurtă analiză a situaţiei dezvoltării activităţilor care vizează integrarea artei, culturii şi patrimoniului în sistemul de învăţământ preuniversitar. Analiza se bazează pe cercetarea exploratorie şi urmăreşte evoluţia acestor practici, având ca referinţă un studiu Eurydice din 2009. Studiul a fost axat pe beneficiari (elevi şi părinţi), profesori şi directori şcolari, precum şi pe artişti şi organizaţii culturale. La nivel naţional, schimbări precum introducerea unui curriculum bazat pe competenţe cheie şi programul “Şcoala altfel” reprezintă factori pozitivi în dezvoltarea activităţilor educaţionale dedicate artei, culturii şi patrimoniului. Am constatat că practicile şi experienţele produse în perioada analizată relevă: o creştere a numărului de activităţi; organizarea acestora din perspectiva accesului egal al tuturor elevilor; deschiderea către noi domenii artistice, dar fără schimbări semnificative în utilizarea noilor tehnologii. Beneficiile activităţilor dedicate artelor, culturii şi patrimoniului sunt mai puţin valorificate din punctul de vedere al integrării acestora ca oportunităţi de învăţare în activităţile şcolare şi al evaluării rezultatelor (adesea limitate doar la evaluarea gradului de satisfacţie). În ultimii ani, şcolile şi operatorii culturali au fost mai deschişi colaborării / parteneriatului, dar nu există un program naţional care să asigure activităţi convergente şi continue. Nu am identificat schimbări semnificative în ceea ce priveşte abordarea patrimoniului cultural.

Keywords: Career counseling, career counselor, constructivism, perception, selfesteem, student.

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OVERVIEW OF RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN EDUCATION THROUGH ARTS AND HERITAGE IN THE ROMANIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM | Angelica MIHĂILESCU

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Abstract: This paper offers a brief analysis of the status of development of activities that aim to integrate arts, culture and heritage into K-12 education. The analysis is based on exploratory research and follows the evolution of these practices, having a 2009 Eurydice study as reference. The study was focused on beneficiaries (pupils and parents), teachers and   school principals, as well as artists and cultural organisations. At national level, changes such as the introduction of a key competence based curriculum and the “Şcoala altfel” Programme (“A Different Kind of School”) are positive factors in the   development of educational activities dedicated to the arts, culture and heritage. What we found is that the practices and experiences produced during the analysed period reveal: an increase in the number of activities, while organizing them from the perspective of equal access to all pupils; the opening towards new artistic fields, but without significant changes in the use of new technologies. The benefits of arts, culture and heritage activities are not well exploited from the point of view of integrating them as learning opportunities in regular school activities and evaluating outcomes (often limited to evaluation of the degree of satisfaction). During the past few years schools and cultural operators have been more open to collaboration / partnership, but there is no national programme that would ensure convergent and continuous activities. We have found no significant changes in the way the issue of cultural heritage is addressed.

Keywords: Benefits for learning, education through arts and heritage, feedback quality, schools attractiveness.

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PROCESS CONSULTATION FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE IN SCHOOLS IN VRANCEA COUNTY | Paul BLENDEA and Irina GEANĂ

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Abstract: The training program “Process Consultation – an Intervention Model” is conceptually covered by the existing management and quality assurance system in Romania, starting from the premise that any activity carried out in school should have as aim to improve quality, reflected in pupils through good and very good results, “wellbeing” and the progress they have made. The purpose of this program was to give access to certain information necessary in day to day activity and also to bring consciousness to those involved in managerial tasks in school. 100 school principals from Vrancea County were trainees in the consultation process with a long term aim: improving the quality of learning and teaching in school.

Keywords: Management, process consultation, quality, school principal, training.

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OPTIONAL SUBJECTS IN THE ROMANIAN SCHOOL: PARENTS’ OPINIONS | Luminţa CATANĂ and Mădălina ANGELUŞIU

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Abstract: There are more than two decades since the Romanian schools have autonomy on optional school subjects. The way these optional subjects are proposed today reflects the schools’ experience, accumulated during this period, regarding their elaboration and approval. There are several studies highlighting how these optional subjects are evaluated by students and teachers; this paper aims to complete the picture and to emphasize the perceptions of the parents having children in gymnasium, regarding the optional school subjects, as components of the curriculum at the school’s decision. The parents’ opinions become important from the perspective of their involvement in the formal education of their children.

Keywords: Curriculum at the school’s decision, optional school subjects, parents’ perceptions, school autonomy.

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REVIEWS

ALETHA JAUCH SOLTER. JOCUL ATAŞAMENTULUI. REZOLVAREA PROBLEMELOR DE COMPORTAMENT ALE COPILULUI PRIN JOACĂ, RÂS ŞI CONECTARE. (Attachment Play: How To Solve Children’s Behaviour Problems With Play, Laughter, And Connection. Shining Star Press, 2013) Bucharest, Herald Publishing House, 2015, 272 pages, ISBN 978-973-111-624-2 | Andreea-Diana SCODA

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RP 2018-1 (EN)

Cover RP.2017.2

THEORETICAL STUDIES

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT AS ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING DEVELOPMENT | Lucian VOINEA

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Abstract: The article is a plea for the use of formative assessment – with a focus on the role of feedback – in order to develop students’ learning, including Learning to learn competence. We deal, mainly, with such aspects related to making learning visible for the students: learning goals, learning success criteria, assessment of learning progress, learning improvement, development of self-efficacy, self-assessment, use of mistakes as opportunities for learning. The view of formative assessment employed belongs to Royce D. Sadler.

Keywords: feedback, formative assessment, learning progress, learning to learn

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EDUCATION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES. VISIONS, POLICIES AND CURRICULUM | Traian VRĂSMAȘ

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Abstract: The education of persons with disabilities is concerning progressively Europe and the entire world, which is why a comparative approach with Romanian situation is needed. The study reviews the main visions, in a diachronic and synchronic manner (the medical, the social and the bio psychosocial model, categorical and no categorical approach), insists on the common evolution of visions, terminology and educational policies in this context, emphasis the connection with curricular policies. At present the indisputable vision of human rights (equality and equity, through the equalisation of opportunities) leads to a progressive focus of policies on an individualised (personalised) approach and less on a categorical one, regarding the education and the fundaments of the school curriculum for children/pupils with disabilities. An identified procrastination of Romania from this point of view – comparing with countries from Euroatlantic space and even some neighbouring countries – makes us responsible for adopting some measures, on short and medium terms, which are possible in the actual legislative context, from the educational perspective.

Keywords: disability, equality and equity, inclusive education, individualisation

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THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION OF THE COMPETENCE-BASED SCHOOL EDUCATION IN UKRAINE | Olena LOKSHYNA

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Abstract: The adoption of the Lisbon Strategy (2000) and of the European Reference Framework on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (2006) launched a competence-based approach in the EU member states education systems. During the last decade the concept of competence greatly influenced the education policy, school curricula and assessment models. The competence approach serves as an Europeanisation tool harmonising the education systems in order to raise their quality and, thus, to make the EU economy competent in the world. The Ukrainian education is under great influence of pan-European tendencies and policies that results in its Europeanisation. The competence approach is one of the tools of this process at the level of school education. Ukraine has travelled long pass from the discussion and definition of competences to the selection and adoption at the nationwide level. Still, this process is accompanied by a number of challenges that make the European experiences significant for the Ukrainian education in the process of its integration into the European education space.

Keywords: competence education, European education space, Europeanization, key competences, secondary education, Ukrainian education

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INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION SKILLS TRAINING FOR SOCIAL AND EDUCATION FIELDS – A MODULE PROPOSAL | Mirela ALEXANDRU

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Abstract: The need for interprofessional collaboration may be condensed in Reid Hoffman’s words “No matter how brilliant your mind or strategy is, if you’re playing a solo game, you’ll always lose out to a team”. In the current social context, there is a strong need for the development of interprofessional collaboration skills, given the increasingly complex problems for which employees need to find solutions. Important steps have been taken at world level to develop interprofessional skills to meet demands by setting up interprofessional work organizations and implementing skills development programs in this direction. Medicines and IT domains are the most advanced in facilitating interprofessional skills development contexts, while the educational and social domains are still in their infancy, being more advanced in some countries. In Romania the interprofessional education is still pioneering, in order to support the process of its development in our country, in this article we propose an interprofessional skills training model for educational and social fields tailored to the training practice at VIA University College, Holstebro, Denmark.

Keywords: higher education, interprofessional collaboration, interprofessional education, training

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GENERAL SECONDARY EDUCATION QUALITY ASSURANCE OF UKRAINE TOWARDS EUROPEAN STANDARDS | Oleh TOPUZOV

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Abstract: Integration of the Ukrainian education into the European Education Area under the conditions of the European choice of Ukraine is highlighted; in the context of the Ukrainian education integration into the European Education Area strategic reform tasks are outlined, i.e. to actualize the existing scientific and pedagogical potential, to implement the opportunities of the Ukrainian scholars and teachers for forecasting, programming, scientific and methodological support of cooperation with the EU priority areas in the education sector; to make strategic management decisions that will create a roadmap for the entry of the education system of Ukraine into the European Education Area; to reform the education system financing; to promote the implementation of the most up-to-date scientific approaches and educational technologies; to continue the democratization of the educational institutions’ life; to improve the quality of training for future school teachers and teachers of pedagogical universities; to promote and to develop international cooperation of national educational institutions, and to ensure conditions for educational mobility. It is determined that one of the priorities of integration of the education system and the general secondary education of Ukraine, in particular, to the European Educational Area, is to ensure its quality according to European standards. According to the Law on Education from September 5, 2017, general secondary education has three levels of education: primary education lasts four years (starts at 6 years); basic secondary education lasts five years; profile secondary education lasts three years. It is concluded that the achievement of the European quality of education in Ukraine will be a powerful factor in solving the economic, political and cultural problems of European integration of our country, the development of a prosperous and democratic society. Therefore, the problem of quality assurance of education needs to be given more attention in the process of development of the national education system.

Keywords: European choice of Ukraine, European Educational Area, European standards, general secondary education, quality assurance

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THE REFLECTIVE PRACTICE OF THE TEACHER – WHY IT IS NEEDED | Ioana STĂNCESCU, Luminiţa Mihaela DRĂGHICESCU, Ana-Maria Aurelia PETRESCU

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Abstract: The world we live in is one in permanent change, reorganization, transformation. The educational system has to connect to this world and to form future responsive, flexible, creative adults that respond appropriately to social demands. Referring to such a goal, the educational process aims the formation of students with important competences, like communicational, cognitive and metacognitive, emotional, intercultural, investigative, digital and civic competences.

The question in this situation is what kind of teachers can form such students. Beyond the initial and continuous training for the teaching profession, teachers need to understand that the efficiency of the didactic activity implies, necessarily, the reflection on it.

This study focuses on the concept of reflective practice, on delimiting the stages of this demarche, on identifying methods and instruments specific to reflective practice (reflection diary, video and audio recordings of the lessons, feed-back, etc.) and, respectively, on shaping a possible personality model of the reflective teacher, which subsumes the following dimensions: self-knowledge, knowledge of students, knowledge of the school organization, knowledge of the curriculum, knowledge in the pedagogical field.

We consider that reflective practice is a valuable resource, insufficiently used, which can bring important benefits to the teacher and, implicitly, to the students, towards the scholar success and, subsequently, the professional and social success.

Keywords: competences, quality of educational process, reflective practice, reflective teacher, teaching style

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EMPIRICAL STUDIES

CAUSES OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE AND POSSIBLE REMEDIAL MODELS | Otilia APOSTU

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Abstract: School violence is a manifestation as old as the history of the school. The forms and the frequency of violent manifestation, the involvement of the school actors for the initiation of violent demonstrations, as well as the perception and tolerance of public opinion about the forms of violence and its actors are those that vary throughout time, giving them specificity and differentiated understanding. School violence includes various forms of manifestation, and to combat and prevent it, it is essential to raise awareness of the phenomenon of violence and its acceptance in the wider context of the determining causes. This study focuses on the causes of school violence directly correlated with the determinants (individual, socio-familial, school), analysed at three different levels of manifestation: violence between students, violence students – teachers, violence teachers – students.

The study uses survey data that explores the phenomenon of school violence at the national level, from multiple perspectives. The analysis uses quantitative data obtained through questionnaire surveys addressed to pupils, principals, teachers, school counsellors, as well as qualitative data obtained by surveys by focus group interview, carried out with students, teachers and parents. The analyses relate the opinions, sometimes antagonistic, of the different school actors on the causes of school violence. The purpose of the study is not to determine the truth or importance of the causes of school violence identified by the school actors, but from these causes will be identified measures, strategies, policies that implementation will lead to a unitary view of school actors on the problem of school violence and the reduction and control of violent manifestations at school.

Keywords: educational policies, prevention and fight against violence, school violence

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DISCOURSES IN COMPETITION ON THE TEACHER’S ROLE IN HIGH SCHOOL | Octavia Mihaela BORȘ

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Abstract: The article describes the competitive discourses on the role of teachers, identified in a high school, in Romania, based on an analysis of 11 individual interviews with teachers. The references to the role of teachers, in the teachers` identifying stories, revealed the following competitive discourses: a teacher should transmit knowledge versus a teacher should enhance the students` understanding; a teacher should grade `objectively` versus a teacher should grade `flexible`. Moreover, the analysis shows that, in the studied high school, the dominant discourse assigns to teachers, the role to transmit knowledge and to grade `flexible`. To grade `flexible` means to accommodate the parents`, principals` and colleagues` expectations to give good grades to some students or all students, in general. This discourse is privileged in the studied field by the fact that while most universities in Romania used to admit students based on the average grade of high school years, informally, the high school gives students and parents the possibility to choose their teachers only based on formal asking and class consensus.

Keywords: curriculum, discourse analysis, grading students, theoretical high school, university admission

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ACADEMIC MOBILITY POLICIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA | Daniela POPA, Ratko KNEZEVIC

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Abstract: Teaching and studying abroad are the key elements in reducing regional isolation of academic community. International exchanges programmes are particularly important for their personal and professional development and have positive effects for the socio-economic area as well. Mobility allows every candidate to gain an invaluable, new experience, to learn foreign languages and to develop interpersonal skills in culturally diverse environments. This article provides a SWOT analysis of the implementation of education policies regarding academic mobility in higher education institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The research is a qualitative one. The collecting data methods used were semi-structured interviews with key respondents and experts in Higher Education and study of documents (laws, implementation measures, decisions of university administration councils). The results show that some of the most valuable advantages are: border-crossing knowledge transfer, the increased number of young professionals having better chances of employment. The main barriers are the attitudes inherited from former education system and insufficiency in advertising of all benefits they can gain from mobility. The value of the article is in its potential to emphasize the complexity of the country having unusually lots of ministries of education that affect academic mobilities.

Keyword: Bologna process, higher education, knowledge transfer

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REVIEWS

CONSTANTIN CUCOS. EDUCAȚIA. REÎNTEMEIERI, DINAMICI, PREFIGURĂRI (Education. Foundations, Dynamics, Foreshadowings). Iasi, Polirom Publishing House, “Education Sciences. Structures, content, techniques” Collection, 2017, 278 pages, ISBN print: 978-973-46-6760-4 | Gabriela Alina ANGHEL

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ADRIAN MIROIU, BOGDAN FLORIAN. UNIVERSITATEA ROMÂNEASCĂ AZI (Romanian University Today). Bucharest, Tritonic Publishing House, 2015, 356 pages, ISBN: 978-606-749-033-6 | Otilia APOSTU

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CRISTINA SIN, AMÉLIA VEIGA, ALBERTO AMARAL. EUROPEAN POLICY IMPLEMENTATION AND HIGHER EDUCATION. ANALYSING THE BOLOGNA PROCESS. London, Palgrave Macmillan, Series: Issues in Higher Education, 2016, 236 pages, ISBN print: 978-1-137-50461-6 | Miruna Luana MIULESCU

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IN MEMORIAM EUGEN NOVEANU

THE HIDDEN DIMENSION | Dan BADEA

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