Category Archives: 2019 / No. 1 & 2 / LXVII

RP-2019-2 (en)

2019-2-cover     FULL ISSUE

EMPIRICAL STUDIES


THE VARIABILITY OF ADOLESCENTS’ INTERESTS IN THE ACADEMIC CONTEXT | Claudia SĂLCEANU
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Abstract: Adolescence is among the most studied developmental stages. It represents critical transition stage in human development, characterized by a large amount of changes, to which young people must find creative solutions in order to adapt. Among the most important developmental tasks is the dimension of motivation and, in particular, interests as motivational structures. A convenience sample of 1360 adolescents, aged between 12 and 24 years old, filled in the Questionnaire for Evaluation of Vocational Interests (Cognitrom Assessment System). The objectives and hypotheses of the research are mainly focused on the identification of the existing differences in the area of interests, based on the following criteria: age, gender and environment of provenance. The study identifies a preference of the postadolescents for the social and investigative interests; a preference for artistic, social and realistic interests of girls; and a preference of urban-based adolescents for conventional and investigative interests. Results highlight the importance of identifying the variability of interests for both a better knowledge of this developmental stage and a better organization of the instructive-educational activities, thus supporting the development of career counseling and guidance in schools, high-schools and universities.

Keywords: Academic context, adolescence, interests

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DEVELOPING SOCIAL INCLUSION AND 21ST CENTURY SKILLS THROUGH PROJECT BASED LEARNING IN THE ERASMUS + PROJECT “WISH” | Darius BOROVIC
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Abstract: The study presents the findings of an experimental research related to the implementation of Project Based Learning in the Erasmus Plus KA201 project Work for an Inclusive School Heritage in Romanian high-schools. One of the projects goals was to develop, to apply and to exchange innovative practices in the 5 countries of the Erasmus partnership (Slovakia, Turkey, Catalonia – Spain, Italy and Romania). The experimental research studied an original Project Based Learning strategy developed from John Dewey’s ideas, Project Citizen and the MAPA methodology for planning funding projects. Teachers from the 5 partner countries were trained and the students from the participant high-schools planned and implemented several social action projects. In Romania we surveyed a sample of 226 students using a validated questionnaire with the majority of questions taken from international literature. The quasi-experimental research proves a statistically significant increase of the students’ positive attitudes toward migrants and minorities, several institutions, civic action, and social inclusion. The desire to participate in solving problems of the community and the level of development of several 21st Century Skills have also improved.

Keywords: Project Based Learning, social inclusion, 21st Century Skills

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TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD THE INCLUSION OF STUDENTS WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) | Florentina LINCĂ
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Abstract: In the last few decades, researchers in the field of education have paid particular attention to the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream schools. Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder have been included among those with special support needs and special educational needs in the USA since 1990, when the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was adopted. In Romania, although there is no specific legislation yet, in 1990 by Law 15, the Romanian Parliament ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which laid the foundations for inclusion of children with special educational needs in mainstream school and society. This study aims to achieve two objectives. The first objective was to explore the relationship between the perception of primary school teachers about the severity of the symptoms of ADHD students, their attitude towards the integration of ADHD students in the school and their knowledge about ADHD. The second objective covered the aspects from the questionnaires applied and from the interview. The results show that the teachers’ attitudes towards the integration of children with ADHD into mainstream schooling are often neutral, that primary school teachers have knowledge of the symptoms, etiology, and treatment of ADHD students, and that there is a mediating effect (Z = 2.02, p = 0.044, p<0.05), which accounts for 36.6% of the total effect. It can be concluded that all the objectives have been achieved and the results can be used to carry out in-service training programs for primary school teachers

Keywords: ADHD, integration, inclusive school, teachers’ attitudes, teachers’ understanding

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PRIMARY STUDENTS` MISREPRESENTATION IN SCIENCE LEARNING | Luminița CATANĂ, Mădălina ANGELUȘIU
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Abstract: In the first three grades of the Romanian primary school, Mathematics and environmental exploration is studied as an integrated discipline. In this configuration, knowledge of the environment through exploratory activities has a relatively small budget of time available, only one hour per week, the priority often being given to Mathematics, due to the requirements of the educational system. In the 3rd and 4th grades, the science study is realized through a new discipline called Nature Sciences, with one hour per week. During the available time, students learn to plan the stages of an investigation, to participate in simple experiments and to check their own assumptions for the already known phenomena or processes. As a result of the limited time dedicated to the study of Science, a series of errors, inaccurate methods and scientific misconceptions (coming from the family, friends, or media) are still perpetuated, until the secondary school.
The article intends to highlight some types of Science learning errors, with examples from the students’ notebooks and worksheets, to identify their possible causes and to create a certain typology for these errors. At the end of the article, a few recommendations are made for the teachers who teach Science in primary school and for the authors of didactical resources for the discipline Nature Sciences, according to the new curriculum.

Keywords: Math and Science curricular area, primary school, science learning errors

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THE EDUCATIONAL REINTEGRATION OF THE REMIGRANT PUPILS IN ROMANIAN SCHOOLS. CASE STUDY IN VRANCEA COUNTY | Florentina CIOMAGA
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Abstract: The educational system in Romania is facing the new challenge of reintegrating the children that returned in their home country after a period of migration, and the update in the educational procedures is becoming more and more important as the number of the remigrant children is rapidly increasing, the most recent estimations mentioning 150,000-180,000 (Brebuleţ, 2018).
This research investigated the social perception of the remigrant pupils in the educational field (native pupils and teachers) and the potential changes that teachers, schools and the system could implement (from specific activities to institutional update and development of new didactic instruments). The research methodology was quantitative, based on a questionnaire with Likert type scales.
Previous researches in Vrancea county showed the psychological, social and educational effects of remigration, but the updates in the educational system to better respond those needs is more dependent on their perception by the decision makers (teachers and school management) and by the native children. Ideally, the social perception should adequately reflect the educational reality. Still, what happens if the perception of the native children and teachers does not reflect reality? What happens if the majority of children could not identify the problems the remigrants face after returning to Romania? What if the teachers, when planning, implementing and evaluating the educational activities, don’t rely on an adequate knowledge of the difficulties that remigrants have to face, can they support the educational system to better respond to the specific needs of the remigrants?

Keywords: Educational reintegration, remigrants, school development

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BULLYING IN SCHOOL – PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION STRATEGIES | Luminița Mihaela DRĂGHICESCU, Ioana STĂNCESCU
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Abstract: In a world that seems to lose its axiological landmarks, in which conflicts and aggressiveness are present at any level of society, in various forms, the school is no longer a safe and positive environment for either children or teachers. Bullying is a phenomenon that is implied into school life, having negative effects on the physical and mental health of children, on their personality, as well as on the quality of the educational process.
In this context, through our study, we intend to investigate the extent to which teachers, being aware of the seriousness of the actions subsumed by bullying, are intervening promptly, adopting a series of strategies to prevent and/or combat this phenomenon. At the level of the European Union and beyond, there is an obvious concern for preventing and limiting the school bullying. Consequently, through our investigative approach, in which we included a group of teachers from pre-university education, we also aim to identify the extent to which they are aware of the need for involvement, in order to promote a safe educational climate, to ensure the physical and emotional security of their students.
The results of our research revealed a proactive attitude on behalf of the teachers, who were aware of the importance of their intervention for the development of harmonious relationships among students, for the training/development of their socio-emotional competences, as well as for diminishing/stopping bullying, through mediation, appropriate sanctions, effective collaboration with all the educational partners.

Keywords: Bullying, educational climate, educational relationships, socio-emotional competences, strategies for preventing and combating bullying

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RESEARCH AND TEACHING: ASSESSING THE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF A NEW EVALUATION METHODOLOGY | Miruna Luana MIULESCU
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Abstract: As teaching and research are perceived as two core academic activities, various attempts have been made to incorporate research into the teaching process. Literature suggests that the link between research and teaching does not only improve the students’ subject knowledge, but also their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. The present paper focuses on the students’ perception of research integration into the teaching process at the undergraduate education level, second year within the Educational Sciences specialization at the University of Bucharest, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences. The aim of the study was to understand the way students perceive the research integration in their courses in the context of introducing a new assessment methodology which focuses on this process. The one-group pre-test – post-test research design involved collecting data from 52 students using the Student Perception of Research Integration Questionnaire (SPRIQ). Data analysis revealed that students perceive many potential benefits when research is integrated into the teaching activity, they are more motivated and interested in the way research is carried out in their department, and have a better perception of their learning environment.

Keywords: Assessment methodology, research-teaching relationship, Student Perception of Research Integration Questionnaire (SPRIQ)

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THEORETICAL STUDIES

IMPROVING SCHOOL CLIMATE THROUGH THE TEACHERS’ AND STUDENTS’ CREATIVITY | Mariana MORARU
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Abstract: The main focus of this article is to highlight the role of creativity in improving school climate. Both, school climate and creativity are two concepts with a large history of research but also with many definitions and explanations. Researches on creativity (Sadler-Smith, 2015; Wallas, 1926) present some phases of the process of creation that help us understand it better. Graham Wallas in Art of Thought (1926) introduces a four-stage model of the creative process including preparation, incubation, illumination and verification and other researchers on the subject developed these ideas. These phases identified by the researchers are developed in the present paper to give readers a clearer image about the concept of creativity. After explaining what creativity means, based on what researchers argue, we will emphasize the importance of both teachers’ and students’ creativity in enhancing the school climate. In a world in which students have a lot of distracters at each corner, teachers must help them to be an active part of the process of teaching and learning. By developing a good relationship with students, by asking them about what they like and guiding them wisely through the process of education, teachers can have more success in achieving their educational goals. The students’ creativity deserves to be valued in schools and can be an essential part of improving the school climate.

Keywords: Creativity, school climate, student’s creativity, school climate improvements, teachers’s creativity

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DO AQUATIC ACTIVITIES BOOST SOCIAL SKILLS FOR CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS? | Maria BELLA
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Abstract: This paper provides a number of aquatic programmes, and critically analyzes methods and techniques used to develop social skills in young children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Social skills are interpreted through a ToM theory lens, emphasizing interactions, such as understanding, explaining, predicting, and manipulating the behavior of themselves and others. Based on these elements, the purpose of this review is to study the role of adapted group aquatic programmes and its effect on children with ASD to understand the concept of peers and learning the benefits of two important social skills, teamwork, and relationships. An online search through ProQuest and First Search resulted in seven studies of diverse methodologies. All these studies support the value of these programmes as a means of social skills’ development. Qualitative as well as quantitative data which included, checklists, interviews, and tests, indicated these programmes benefit ASD children’s’ social skills, such as cooperation, communication and increase in self-esteem. Findings suggested that children with ASD have opportunities to make new friends, feel more comfortable in a group and reduce anxiety through swimming. These relationships can continue, as they discover other common interests. More longitudinal studies are needed to develop aquatic activities as an extracurricular activity and the planning process to achieve the intended outcomes. By synchronizing theory with sports activities and teamwork, children with ASD can feel a deep sense of accomplishment upon achievement.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorders, interactions, social skills, swimming, teamwork

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REVIEWS

GEORGETA PÂNIȘOARĂ. PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING. HOW DO CHILDREN AND ADULTS LEARN? Iaşi, Polirom Publishing House, 2019, 296 pages, ISBN 978-973-46-7725-2 | Andreea-Diana SCODA
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RP-2019-1 (en)

2019-1-cover

EMPIRICAL STUDIES

Study on the Relationship Between Mindfulness and Work-Life Balance Levels in the Romanian Young Population | Ion-Ovidiu PÂNIŞOARĂ, Georgeta PÂNIŞOARĂ, Cristina SANDU, Ruxandra CHIRCA
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Abstract: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship between the levels of mindfulness and work-life balance at the Romanian young population. In the process of enhancing our levels of work-life balance, satisfaction or well being, mindfulness plays an essential role, proved by its practice and its applications. The quality of our professional life is a significant contributor to our quality of life as a whole. When society provides a qualitative professional life to its citizens, it also proves itself worthy of attracting and retaining employees. Mindfulness is not an independent concept, but one which positively influences multiple areas or dimensions of an individual’s life. These dimensions include: perspective, connection, choice, and self-knowledge. The subjects of this study were 60 young people, aged between 20-35. All of them were either students or graduates of higher education institutions. The methods used for this study were two questionnaires: the first one was a questionnaire for identifying the level of mindfulness, based on four dimensions – observe, describe, act with awareness and accept without judgement – and the second one – a scale for measuring the level of work-life balance. The results were processed in SPSS Statistics using the T-test for independent samples and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The results showed a strong relationship between the levels of mindfulness and work-life balance of the Romanian young population.

Keywords: Mindfulness, satisfaction, well-being, work-life balance

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Initial Teacher Training to Encourage Higher Order Skills in the ClassCristina TRIPON

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Abstract: Lifelong learning has become a necessity in most professions due to the information explosion and technology integration in daily work. Teachers, obviously, fall into this category, the teaching methods, and skills that need to be developed by students in need of continuous improvement. Changes in educational reform, too fast to adapt to children and teachers, also contribute to the daily school challenges. Ideally, the school should prepare its students for the challenges of an active life. But what happens when the labor market is still growing and the necessary skills for the future are not yet required at the current level? What happens when competencies of the 21st century or skills in the soft-skills category are not developed by the graduates, that is, by the teachers? This research has focused on a specially developed program, about 1 year, for future teachers. The main objective is to improve direct educational practices from the classroom by using teaching methods that encourage the development of higher-level thinking skills.
Keywords: Certification programs, high order thinking, teacher training

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School as a Learning Organization. School Climate in Digital SocietyMariana Georgiana MORARU

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Abstract: The paper analyses the components of the educational climate in the school organization. The latter facilitates and co-participates in the learning processes while constantly developing itself. The importance of the educational climate in defining a school is metaphorically underlined by Freiberh and Stein (1999), which described the school climate as “the heart and soul of the school, and the essence that directs teachers and pupils to love school and to want to be part of it.” In recent years, worrying studies have emerged about the feelings that both students and teachers associate with the school. According to a report on the state of education in Romania, published by UNICEF in 2013, our country is the last in Europe in terms of the well-being of young people. Even when it comes to teachers, the educational reality is not very different. A recent study (2018) by the Romanian Business Leaders Foundation (RBL) and D & D Research shows that Romania occupies the antepenultimate place in the world and the last place in Europe in global index of the status of teachers in society. In order to build a learning climate and to support the development of schools, it is first necessary to carefully analyse the many dimensions of the educational climate in order to understand the complexity and value of this concept.
Keywords: Dimensions, educational climate, educational resources, information society, school development, school organization

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Role Play in Building the Communicative Skills in Students from a
Technical University | Elena TIRON

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Abstract: The article presents a brief history of role play from Moreno’s work to the present time and the specificity of role play as a teaching method. The conceptual differences among similar interactive methods are identified: group work, thinking hats, the mosaic method. The didactic method of role play is applied to a group of 90 first-year students from a technical faculty, taking the subject of Communication Techniques, for 12 weeks. The research aims to develop professional communication skills by using role play. We identified the communication problem of the students from a technical faculty, set research objectives, present the research design, the results and their interpretation. The communication problem of the first year students from a technical faculty consists in the difficulty of dealing with active listening, empathy, negotiation with others. As a result, the research objectives focused on the development of these subcomponents of the communication competences. The criteria for assessing the application of this method for the development of professional communication competences are established by the teacher. Through the SWOT method applied at the end of the 12-weeks research, students highlighted the positive aspects, the negative ones, the opportunities and the risks of implementing role play. The conclusions of the paper emphasize the need to use interactive methods with the aim of developing students’ transversal competences, but also the limitations or inadequacies of these methods.
Keywords: Professional communication skills, role play, technical higher education, training

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The Use of Technology in STEM Education. An Empirical Research |
Olimpius ISTRATE, Cosmina MIRONOV, Anca POPOVICI
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Abstract: In Romania, the latest results in PISA as well as national exams show a decrease in the interest of students in studying sciences, whilst the results are much below the OECD average. The present study has been carried out at national level by a research team from the University of Bucharest within the framework of the international Horizon 2020 project Scientix, coordinated by European SchoolNet. The study addresses the beliefs and attitudes of STEM teachers in the pre-university education on current practices, evolution and trends in the science-related skills of students. Two investigative techniques have been used: document analysis and an online standardized questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire was developed by Friday Institute for Educational Innovation, NC State University. So far, the quantitative data was collected from 259 STEM teachers. The survey invited teachers to express their opinions related to their attitudes, values and beliefs on their teaching efficacy, development of the 21st Century skills, educational leadership, as well as some other themes such as the extent to which teaching and teachers affect student learning, the amount and quality of use of ICT for learning in STEM classes, the frequency of using certain STEM instructional practices, awareness of STEM careers. This article’s focus is on one out of the seven constructs – the use of technology in STEM classes. The construct is operationalised in eight sub-items. The discussion on the each of the constructs as well as on the relations between them is quite relevant in the light of the relationship between beliefs and practices, while the results are quite striking, with impact on tailored professional development approached.
Keywords: Computer-assisted instruction, ICT tools in education, teachers, STEM education

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Creativity, Interdisciplinary Education and the Use of
Technology – Conditions for a Modern EducationAdina MIHAI (CĂLUGĂRU)
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Abstract: The teacher can develop the students’ creativity through different strategies, and it is up to him/her that the lessons should be attractive, interesting and lead on the one hand to a good collaboration among students, and on the other hand, to a good collaboration among the teacher and his/her students. Interdisciplinary teaching appears to be a necessity to overcome the artificial boundaries among disciplines and to correlate their contents, and the use of technology within classes helps to improve the educational process by seeking knowledge and skills that enable the student to adapt to the requirements of society, which are in constant evolution. The use of technology favours the teaching process through the following features: through multidisciplinary activities, by allowing access to non-school educational resources, by using images, sounds that facilitate the understanding of some abstract concepts, through the ability of searching for sources of information that stimulate curiosity, through the possibility of practicing for the formation of skills, through collaborative interactions in solving some projects. In order to achieve a modern, but also highly qualitative education, the teacher has to combine classical and modern methods correctly, to be creative, and the technology should be used with measure and at the right time. The key to the successful use of informational and communicational technology is not the choice of tools or programs, but the ability of the teacher to plan, create and implement a creative and effective activity.
Keywords: Collaboration, creativity, interdisciplinary teaching

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Developing Young Learners’ Oral Skills Through Storytelling with LEGO® | Diana COJOCNEAN

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Abstract: The current study shows how LEGO® was used as a learning tool in the foreign language classroom with young learners (7-10 years old) during an English Foreign Language (EFL) course in order to enhance fluency and develop students’ oral skills. The findings of this small-scale study support the idea that storytelling engages young learners in the process of foreign language learning and that LEGO® bricks could create contexts very favorable to language learning. Likewise, it indicates that students’ engagement in the storytelling task is determined by several factors, such as their interest in LEGO®, their level of assertiveness, their creativity and language level. As to the type of tasks, collaborative or individual, the current paper puts forward the idea that in the case of storytelling tasks, young learners perform better individually than in pairs or in small groups. This article approaches the language benefits of storytelling activities with young learners and displays a few pedagogical suggestions for the use of LEGO® as a language learning tool.
Keywords: Collaboration, EFL, engagement, LEGO, oral skills, storytelling

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Constrastive-Comparative Study on Students’ Perceptions of Using
Literary Texts as Authentic Language Learning ResourcesLilia PETRICIUC

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Abstract: This comparative study represents an attempt to identify students’ perceptions and needs at the same time, in terms of incorporating literary texts in the foreign language class. For quite a long time literary texts (LT) have been massively marginalized as a language learning resource and consequently students display significant deficiencies in interpreting figurative language, making inferences, thinking critically. The researcher assumes that revitalizing LT in the language class would bring multiple benefits to the students who learn EFL as part of a double program training them to become teachers of other subjects as well as primary and secondary school teachers in Moldova. It is a contrastive-comparative study involving 83 students, 48 undergraduates from the University of Granada and 35 from SPU “Ion Creangă” of Chişinău, Moldova. The data were collected through mixed instruments: all of the students filled in a survey for quantitative data and the students from Moldova participated in a semi-structured interview at the end of their 2nd year course in English. The findings reveal rather positive attitudes in favor of LT as a language learning resource, but at the same time there are differences between the perceptions of Spanish and Moldovan students. The pedagogical implications of the study for stakeholders at “Ion Creangă” University suggest reconsidering the EFL curriculum with a view of incorporating more LT alongside other types of authentic materials used to develop students’ language proficiency.
Keywords: Attitudes and perceptions, authentic materials, benefits, differences, literary texts

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The Lesson of literature and ICT. The Mentimeter ApplicationMihaela STANCIU

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Abstract: Progressively, the differences between generations can be observed in schools, not only from the mentality point of view, but also through the evolution of technology. Nowadays, school has to adapt to the society’s development rhythm and prepare the youth for the future, which is characterized by change, advanced technology and science. As a Romanian Literature and Language teacher, the question which is raised is in what way the strategies, methods, and means used in class can be updated to the new types of communication and the necessities that students have according to the fundamental change of the society, such that the connection teacher-student can be realised in a more constructive and motivational way. This article proposes a new way of reflection for teachers interested in the optimization of methods and teaching means used in class – Mentimeter represents an innovative element in Romania, but currently used in the United Kingdom for high-school classes and university lectures. We will take into consideration how to define this concept, the process, the necessary means and materials, the lesson category, how to give suitable tasks in order to highlight the teacher’s and student’s role, realising didactic applications. In our opinion, Mentimeter can be an ICT method used in education, but it’s success depends on the teachers’ creativity and open-mindedness to innovation.
Keywords: Didactic application, literature lesson, methods and means optimization, Mentimeter, society change

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Attitude of High school Students Towards the Use of Technology in
the Educational Process | Lavinia DRĂGAN

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Abstract: This paper takes into account the results of a sociological survey based on the opinion poll technique, using a thematic questionnaire. The sample construction (availability sample of a relatively small number of subjects) and the data analysis and interpretation make this research similar to qualitative studies. The questionnaire addresses high school students and it is designed to analyze their perceptions and attitudes about the use of technology in learning and assessment. Both the degree of technology use during individual study and research and the level of capitalization by teachers and pupils during lessons were taken into consideration. The sociological survey also captures the respondents’ opinions on how technology can be used in teaching social science. Taking into account the development of eight key competences established in accordance with the European norms, the way in which digital competencies development can be pursued – besides the general and specific competencies provided by the sociology curriculum – has been investigated. The research results indicate an increased level of students’ receptivity and interest towards the integration of technology in teaching social science, as well as an increase in efficiency regarding teaching aims and objectives. Also, an increase in learners’ intrinsic motivation to study and their willingness to play an active role in the educational process can be observed. In conclusion, integrating technology into the teaching-learning-evaluation process proves to be beneficial, equally meeting the needs of students and teachers.
Keywords: Digital competencies, highschool, social science, technology

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The Perspective and the Effects of Robotics Courses in School Education | Ana Maria POPA

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Abstract: This research has focused on exploring how the introduction of robotics classes in school can improve the educational process, especially in the direction of teaching children with the abilities of the 21st century, due to the new robotics that are attracting more and more. Two groups of students from a state school in Bucharest, Secondary School Nr. 195, participated in this research. The experimental group participated in the Robotics course and the control group participated in a course on Applied Mathematics in Transmission of the Movement, over a seven weeks period, in the year 2017. At that time, the students in both groups were in 3rd grade, their average ages was 9-10 years. The group that conducted the Robotics course had 33 students, and the group that developed the Applied Mathematics course in Transmitting the Movement had 37 students. For this research, LEGO kits such as Lego Mindstorm have been used and assimilated, allowing students to work in teams. This facilitated the understanding of the basic notions, and the children subsequently succeeded in expressing and developing their own ideas. The notions of robotics, the basic technological concepts have been easily assimilated by groups of students aged 10. Student debates, mathematical problem solving, teamwork, and the interest of children in the process of designing robots shows that robotics is a winning discipline.
Keywords: Children, math, problems, robotics, solution
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R E V I E W S

SPERANŢA FARCA. CHILD’S INDEPENDENCY. FEAR OF SEPARATION. Bucharest, Humanitas Publishing House, 2018, 271 pages, ISBN 978-973-50-6153-1 | Andreea-Diana SCODA

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IN MEMORIAM

In memoriam. Gabriel Albu, the Pedagogue | Irina HORGA

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School Development through eTwinning

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